The prevalence of poverty is the biggest socio-economic challenge that world has to deal with. As the world population is increasing at the exponential rate, the rate of poverty is increasing proportionally. Poverty could be characterized with the following Macroeconomic and Microeconomic indicators such as Income Levels, Education levels, Unemployment Rates, Purchasing Power Parity, Social Development, and Deficit balances of Trade .According to the (The World Bank, 2011) 14.5 percent of world population is characterized as poor . The indicator that World Bank has used for data collection is Income levels and the people who live on less than $1.45 a day.
Before discussing about environmental sustainability, we should know the meaning of it. Environmental sustainability involves making decisions and taking actions that are in the interests of protecting the natural world, with particular emphasis on preserving the capability of the environment to support human life. Among 8 MDG goals, ensuring environmental sustainability is one of them.
The objectives of ensuring environmental sustainability are improving the sustainable management of natural resources, ensuring low emission project, transport systems, saving energy, promoting agriculture, reducing climate related threats towards the countries, sustainable access to safe drinking water including basic sanitation and by 2020, improving the living standards of around 100 million slum dwellers. Continue reading
‘A,’ ‘I,’ D’ and ‘S’ are merely letters of the alphabet but put them together and it transforms into one of the most intimidating word in the history of mankind. 27 years ago, when the name AIDS came about, this disease was elusive. No scientist, doctor or health care professional could understand the nature of this virus, let alone how it was transmitted. But we powered on, as epidemiologists, scientists and healthcare workers worked hand in hand to not only identify the retrovirus but also to find a possible treatment, one which would improve the quality of life of an AIDS patient by leaps and bounds.
A retrovirus manipulates our immune cells and incorporates itself as part of our body’s defence system. It tricks us and makes us believe that it is one to be trusted. The sheer manipulation of this virus is astonishing as it not only “camouflages” as one of us, but kills our all mighty T cells without which we are defenseless against all infections. Finding a treatment that inhibits a retrovirus is a sheer stroke of genius. Continue reading
Most girls grow up wanting to be mothers, of bearing and nurturing life. But for many millions of women, the process of pregnancy and the postpartum period can turn deadly for both mother and child. According to the WHO, around 800 women die every day due to complications in pregnancy and childbirth.
The major complications that account for almost 75% of all maternal deaths are severe bleeding, infections (usually after childbirth), high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia), complications from delivery and unsafe abortion. What makes the situation worse is that most of these causes are avoidable or treatable with proper care, education and processes in place. Timely management and treatment can make the difference between life and death.
The main goals of the UN Millennium Development Goal 5–Maternal Health is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by at least three quarters, and to achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015. According to the UN, maternal health encompasses the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. It includes in its purview elements of family planning, preconception, prenatal and postnatal care.
Where we stand now
In the past 23 years, we have made some progress in providing safer, less lethal conditions and options available to expectant and new mothers. Between 1990 and 2013, the worldwide maternity mortality rate fell almost 45% from 523,000 deaths in 1990 to 289,000 deaths in 2013. This is still far from the UN Millennium Development Goal of a 75% drop, and accelerated interventions are required in order to meet the target by 2015. That translates to a drop to 131,000 deaths by 2015. A Herculean task, certainly, but not impossible. Continue reading
Women constitute a central focus in the socio-culture system of every nation. Many world bodies, international, non-government organizations have also established legal, administrative and institutional structure for the effective existence and survival of women and girls.
In 1995, the Beijing platform for action remains a relevant guideline for development programming. It provide for “an agenda for women’s empowerment” signed by all government that is seen as “a necessary and fundamental pre-requisite for equality, development and peace.
Among the eight MDG goals, achieving universal primary education is second of them. Many children of the developing and under-developed countries are deprived of this basic need. There are many reasons behind, why the primary education should be compulsory for all. Just think about a situation, a young girl or boy, who has completed her primary education may be careful about the important things like as marrying at a later age, having fewer children, decreasing the chance of HIV, finding employment, seeking medical care, doing noble for the community etc.
Extreme poverty was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as “a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services.” Currently, extreme poverty widely refers to earning below the international poverty line of a $ 1.25/day in 2005 prices), set by the World Bank. This measure is the equivalent of earning a $1.00 a day in 1996 US prices, hence the widely used expression, living on “less than a dollar a day”. The vast majority of these in extreme poverty-96%- reside in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and the Pacific; nearly half live in India and China alone.
The reduction of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger was the first Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 1), as set by 189 United Nations member state in 2000. Specifically, MDG1 set a target of reducing the extreme poverty rate in half by 2015, a goal that was met 5 years ahead of schedule with the expiration of the MDGs fast approaching, the international community, including the UN, the World Bank and the US, has set a target of ending extreme poverty by 2030.